pandemic・epidemic・outbreakの意味と例文

pandemic・epidemic・outbreakの違い ニュース

世界的にウイルスや感染の流行、広がりを表す英語の表現には主に3つあります。それが「pandemic(パンデミック)」・「epidemic(エピデミック)」・「outbreak(アウトブレイク)」です。

それぞれ意味の違いはさほどありませんが、ウイルスなどの病気の広がりの度合いや規模によっても使い分けられています。

どのように使われているのか、それぞれの単語の意味やスペルなども確認しながら例文を見ていきましょう。

pandemic(パンデミック)の意味と使い方例文

pandemic,epidemic,outbreak,違い

pandemic(パンデミック)の意味

Pandemic(パンデミック)を直訳すると全国的や世界的に病気が流行することを表し、感染症の世界的流行または爆発的感染とも呼ばれます。

毎年のように流行しているインフルエンザや現在世界規模で問題となっている、COVID-19(コロナウイルス)の流行によりPandemic(パンデミック)を耳にするようになったと思います。

pandemic(パンデミック)の使い方例文

  • 例文①「you should wear a mask to protect from pandemic flu.
    インフルエンザの流行から身を守るためにマスクをするべきだよ。
  • 例文②「Global bird flu pandemic could develop.」
    世界的な鳥インフルエンザの流行は広がっていくでしょう。

pandemic(パンデミック)の表現の多くは、インフルエンザが代表ですが、エイズやこれらなどの拡大にも使用されます。また一言で「世界流行」と訳されることもあります。

「Pandemic(パンデミック)のスペルと役立つ英語例文」はこちらで紹介しています。

epidemic(エピデミック)の意味と使い方例文

pandemic,epidemic,outbreak,違い

epidemic(エピデミック)の意味

epidemic(エピデミック)一部の地域や国、医療・公衆の場で急激に増加していることを言います。

平常の広がりよりも広く流行して、患者数が一気に増えて危険度が高いことを表します。

公式な場でのpandemic(パンデミック)との使い分けは、WHO(世界保健機関)などが判断します。

epidemic(エピデミック)の使い方例文

  • 例文①:In 1888 There was an epidemic of yellow fever.
    1888年に黄熱が流行した。
  • 例文②:There is an obesity pandemic in the UK.
    イギリスでは肥満がまん延している

この例文のようepidemic(エピデミック)は流行している他にも「まん延している」という使い方もできます。

outbreak(アウトブレイク)の意味と使い方例文

 

pandemic,epidemic,outbreak,違い

outbreak(アウトブレイク)の意味

この単語の使い方としては、国や地域、都市などで急速に広がっていることを表しますが、より一部の地域に限定して利用されることが多いです。

また「勃発・発生」というぐらいの意味合いなので、戦争などが起きた時の表現でも覚えておくとよいと思います。

勃発・発生に重きがあるので、ウイルスの流行に関しても「爆発的な発生」として使われることが多いようです。

outbreak(アウトブレイク)の使い方例文

  • 例文①:「Governments of Japan tried to stop the flu outbreak.」
    日本の政府はインフルエンザの流行を止めようとした。
  • 例文②:「There was another war outbreak in 1831.」
    1831年に戦争は勃発した。

この2つの例文のようにウイルス感染の流行を表し、また病気以外の大きな出来事が起こった場合にも使用できます。

pandemic・epidemic・outbreak まとめ

「pandemic(パンデミック)」・「epidemic(エピデミック)」・「outbreak(アウトブレイク)」の3つの病気の流行についてまとめましたが、感染の拡大規模種類、段階などで使い分けると、区別をつけやすいのかなと思います。

「いつのことについて書いたり言ったりするのか」について事前に確認すると良いかもしれないですね。

また、近年よく使われる言葉ですので、pandemic・epidemic・outbreakのスペルや発音もしっかり押さえておきましょう。

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